爱问 爱问共享资料 医院库
看中国

大千世界/无奇不有

看中国

正在阅读:Reddit评论:中国空气污染减少30%(2013年到2016年)

Reddit评论:中国空气污染减少30%(2013年到2016年)

Air contamination drops by 30% in China

龙腾网/北海西铜 2018-06-06 16:50:15 china空气污染
43180 7

世界卫生组织(WHO = World Health Organization)数据库将北京的颗粒物污染排名从第40位降至第187位。颗粒物污染的罪魁祸首被认为是燃煤发电厂。


原创翻译:

WHO database lowers Beijing’s particulate ranking from 40th worst in world to 187th, as coal plants flagged as key culprit

世界卫生组织(WHO = World Health Organization)数据库将北京的颗粒物污染排名从第40位降至第187位。颗粒物污染的罪魁祸首被认为是燃煤发电厂。

In Beijing the modern city beyond the Imperial City’s north gate is visible under a clear sky during the period assessed, 2013-16.

2013年到2016年的评测期间,北京皇城北门外的现代城区在晴空下清晰可见

Beijing is slowly shedding its image as the world’s most polluted city. In 2013, it ranked as the 40th worst city for the particulate PM2.5 in the World Health Organisation global database. Four years on, thanks in part to a crackdown on polluters, it stands in 187th place.

北京正逐渐摆脱她“全世界污染最严重城市”的形象。2013年,在世界卫生组织全球数据库的细颗粒物(PM2.5)污染程度最严重城市排名中,北京排在第40位。4年后,部分归功于对污染者的强制取缔措施,她的该项排名降至第187位。

Air pollution in the 62 Chinese cities tracked by the WHO dropped by an average of 30% between 2013 and 2016. China’s air pollution problems are often blamed on the country’s rapid industrial growth but the problems probably date back to the 1950s.

根据世卫组织的跟踪监测,从2013年到2016年,中国62座城市的空气污染平均减少了30%。中国的空气污染通常被认为是该国迅速的工业增长造成的,但事实上,问题的根源可能要追溯到1950年代。

In air pollution terms China is two countries, divided by a line that follows the Huai river. North of this line average winter temperatures are below freezing and here free or heavily subsidised coal was provided for home heating. This led to the development of poorly controlled, coal-powered, district heating systems in towns and cities north of the river.

在空气污染方面,可以把中国看作是被淮河一线划分开的两个不同部分。这条线以北,冬季平均气温在零度以下,而政府大量补贴甚至是免费的煤炭被用作家庭供暖。这就逐渐发展成了淮河以北以煤炭为燃料,却又控制不力的集中供暖系统。

The laudable aim of providing home heating was disastrous for China’s air. Average particle pollution north of the Huai river was 40% greater than the south and this extra pollution caused an estimated three-year reduction in average life expectancy.

虽然为居民家庭供暖的初衷值得称赞,但这却给中国的空气质量造成了灾难性影响。淮河以北地区的平均颗粒物污染,相较于淮河以南高出了40%。而据估计,这一污染差异导致(北方居民)平均预期寿命缩短了3年。

Understandably, a small but growing group of Chinese urbanites have been moving south for cleaner air.

所以可以理解,为什么会有数量仍不断增长的一小群城市人口,为了更干净的空气而迁移到中国南方。

评论翻译

[–]GrammatonYHWH 72

It's almost like big government, regulations, and hefty penalties are more effective than praying that businesses will develop a conscience and stop prioritising profits! Who would have thought?

这就像是在说:大政府、规章制度、巨额罚金,比祈祷那些企业生出良心来、不再以利润优先要更有效!谁能想到呢?

[–]piisfour 33

China goes very far with penalities.

中国的刑罚可是相当严厉的。

[–]Stussygiest 5

While 2008 financial crash, bankers got bonuses!

They expect bankers will play nice after 2008, because they got bonuses and handed "get-out-of-jail-free" card?

One of the reasons i don't mind China ruling the world, they actually punish the bad guys, the majority of the times anyway.

然而(我们这边)2008年的金融危机时,银行家们还在分红!

期待银行家在2008年之后能守规矩,就因为他们不但分到了红利,还得到了“免罪卡”?

我不介意中国主导世界的一个原因就是,他们真正是在惩处坏人——至少在多数情况下有效。

[–]Medical_Officer 37

It's amazing what you can do when you don't spend all your time campaigning for lobbyists, sucking off lobbyists, and sitting a booth telemarketing to lobbyists for the chance to suck them off.

很惊人吧!当你不必把所有时间都花在代表游说集团竞选,巴结游说集团,或者努力向游说集团推销自己以获得巴结他们的机会时——真的能干很多事!

[–]jsfly 20

Not to mention running for re-election, meeting with donors, fundraising etc etc. Shit takes at least a year out of the four year term.

更别提竞选连任了,和捐款人会面、募款等等等等。4年任期里至少有1年全在干这些鸟事。

[–]toasted_breadcrumbs 7

For Congressmen it's like 6 months off then start campaigning for the next term. The 2 year cycle is ridiculous and essentially forces the Congressmen to find corporate allies to fund continuous campaigning.

对众议员来说则像是放假6个月,以便开始下一任期的竞选。(众议员的)两年任期制简直是荒谬,这实际上是在迫使他们去和企业结盟,以获取连续竞选的资金支持。

(译注:美国参议员任期6年,众议员任期2年)

[–]szassasin 4

as someone who lives and visits many factories here and have friends working in factories I can tell you that the focus on the environment is real. It is now used as a means of uating an official's effectiveness, which determines if they get promoted or not later on down the line. Before it was only improving local GDP that mattered.

One example that comes to mind is that in the last few years the cost of cardboard has gone way up due to environmental regulations. That might not relate to PM 2.5, but it does show that when the government here does decide something should be done they actually focus on practical ways of achieving it.

作为一个居住在这里(中国)并且走访过许多工厂、也有不少在工厂工作的朋友的人,我可以告诉你他们是真正在致力于改善环境。现在这已经成为一个评价官员绩效的指标,决定他们今后是否能得到提拔。以前则只有提高当地国内生产总值(GDP)才有用。

我想到一个例子:过去几年因为环保法规,硬纸板价格飞涨。这可能和PM2.5没什么关联,但通过它可以看到,当这里的政府决定应该要做的事后,他们就真真正正专注于切实可行的办法去做成这件事。

[–]Golemfrost 18

Go China!

Let's see how long it takes for the orange emperor to downplay China's achievements. "The're stealing the sun's power, not good"

中国加油!

让我们看看,橙色大帝(即特朗普)何时又会跑来贬低中国的成就:“他们是在窃取太阳的能量,这样可不好……”

[–]Ogooglebar86 2

Good news if this is true. Now if only we could fix India.

如果属实当然是好消息。现在,要是能把印度也搞好就……

[–]2402a7b7f239666e4079 4

I believe it if Beijing is anything to go by. Way more nice days than before, and while the smog still exists it's not near as bad, at least from personal experience.

如果以北京的情况来判断,我相信(报道)属实。天气好的日子多了很多;而且虽然还是有雾霾天,至少以我的个人经验也远远算不上有多糟。

[–]piisfour 4

Truly an amazing level of efficiency in combating pollution.

在治理污染上这真算是效率惊人了。

[–]pasernik 10

All thanks to Xiaomi air purifiers

多亏了小米空气净化器

[–]nakama_da 66

Good job China!

干得好中国!

[–]NoReallyFuckReddit -59

wow! only 30,000% left to go.

哇噢!就剩30000%了加油。

[–]throwawayja7 25

You can't go lower a total by more than 100% without going negative.

你不能降得比100%再多,不然就变负值啦。

[–]Linooney 36

They won't be happy until China solves everyone else's pollution, too.

除非中国把其他所有人的污染一起解决掉,否则他们是不会满意的。

[–]IlikeJG 22

Yeah for real. Every single time we see some new article about China improving their pollution problem in some way, there's always a bunch of people on the sidelines badmouthing it because they haven't 100% corrected everything yet.

It's like they think China should be able to just 100% fix everything imnediately or they might as well not try.

还真是。每次我们只要看到一篇关于中国以某种方式改善他们的污染问题的文章,就总会有一堆冷眼旁观的家伙出来恶意诋毁,说他们(中国人)没把所有事都100%做对。

这些人似乎认为,中国就应该立即把所有问题都100%解决好,否则就连努力尝试都不行。

[–]covfefetime 101

Shocker, yet in the US, nuclear is vilified

震惊!然而在美国,人们还在诽谤核能。

[–]ItsInTheOtherHand 108

The "Green movement's" baseless and emotional attacks on nuclear power in the 70s/80s did incalculable damage to the very cause that they were supposedly for. It's a real travesty, as switching over to those kinds of power plants en masse could have markedly reduced our carbon infrastructure.

在上世纪70、80年代,“绿色运动”毫无根据却全凭情绪化地攻击核能,反而对他们本该追求的事业造成了不可估量的破坏。真的荒谬可笑!如果我们能整体转换到新能源发电,我们的碳排放设施肯定早就显著减少了。

(译注:绿色运动又称生态运动。在上世纪60年代末能源危机、生态失控之下应运而生,80年代发展壮大,已遍及整个发达资本主义世界。很多国家里,这些绿色运动分子都组成政党,如西欧和北欧几乎每个国家都有一个名为绿党或者有类似名称的政党。而从80年代起,美国的环保团体也开始推举会员参加选举。)

[–]paltrypanties 0

if the Green movement hadnt stopped the proliferation of nuclear reactors-- 100% certain America wud be a blasted nuclear wasteland by now. With people like Trump and Pence in power, you can be 100% certain they would sacrifice 100 million lives just to make 1 buck more. They have doomed humanity. If you do not fight back now, all your children will perish horribly.

如果当年不是绿色运动阻止了核反应堆激增——可以百分之百肯定,今天的美国早已是核爆后的一片荒漠了。有特朗普和彭斯(即Mike Pence,迈克·彭斯,现任美副总统)这类人掌权,他们百分之百会为了多赚一块钱而不惜牺牲一亿人的性命。他们早就灭绝人性了。如果你们现在不反抗,你们的子孙全都会被他们可怕地毁灭。

[–]growingpockets 6

Nuclear power is the safest power source.

Here's a study comparing nuclear power to other conventional power sources: https://ourworldindata.org/what-is-the-safest-form-of-energy

Here's a graphic from the study, which shows the death rate for nuclear power vs other conventional forms of power: https://ourworldindata.org/graph ... -production-per-twh

Here are the mortality rates for different energy sources (I trimmed off the global numbers so that only US sources are displayed)

Energy Source - Mortality Rate (deaths/trillionkWhr)

Coal – U.S. - 10,000 (32% U.S. electricity)

Oil - 36,000 (33% of energy, 8% of electricity)

Natural Gas - 4,000 (22% global electricity)

Biofuel/Biomass - 24,000 (21% global energy)

Solar (rooftop) - 440 (< 1% global electricity)

Wind - 150 (2% global electricity)

Hydro – U.S. - 5 (6% U.S. electricity)

Nuclear – U.S. - 0.1 (19% U.S. electricity)

核能是最安全的能源。

这是一份比较核能和其它传统能源的研究报告:https://ourworldindata.org/what-is-the-safest-form-of-energy

这是该报告里的一张图表,比较核能与传统能源分别导致的死亡率:https://ourworldindata.org/graph ... -production-per-twh

以下是不同能源导致的死亡率对比(我把全球的去掉了,只保留美国的死亡率数据)

能源类型      ——      死亡率(每万亿千瓦时)

煤炭                       10000 (占美国发电量的32%)

石油                       36000 (占能源的33%,发电量的8%)

天然气                    4000   (占全球发电量的22%)

生物燃料                 24000 (占全球发电量的21%)

太阳能(屋顶式)    440    (占全球发电量不到1%)

风能                       150    (占全球发电量的2%)

水电                       5        (美国发电量的6%)

核能                       0.1     (美国发电量的19%)

[–]sirbissel 4

...I'm curious about the 440 deaths for solar. Is that people falling off their homes, or are they creating solar death rays to burn people on the ground or something?

……我真好奇太阳能的那440个人是怎么挂的?是从他们家屋顶摔下来了,还是有人用太阳能造出死光枪干掉地面上的人,还是怎样?

[–]RikerT_USS_Lolipop 6

Those scientific perspectives do take into account the disasters and nuclear is still, the safest energy source.

What isn't taken into account is the fact that we decided to stop building new nuclear power plants because idiots made so much noise, but we couldn't turn off the old ones because reality is we need energy, so instead we continued using older models rather than update to even safer designs.

这些科学观察确实已经把各种灾难考虑进去了,但核能仍是最安全的能源。

没有被考虑到的是,因为一群白痴的不停吵闹,我们决定停建新核能电厂;但因为我们的能源需求,我们又不能关停老核电厂。于是我们只能继续使用老旧型号,而不能应用更新更安全的设计。

[–]LiveForPanda 403

It's amazing that India's air pollution problem is much much worse than China's, yet it receives very limited international attention compare to how they scrutinized China in the past decade.

令人惊讶的是:印度的空气污染问题比中国严重那么、那么多,但比起对中国细致入微的审视,过去十年国际社会给予印度的关注却是如此有限。

[–]JacUprising 23

Funny how China is always the bad guy, even when they do better than the West’s allies.

Weird, eh?

有趣的是即使中国比西方世界的盟友做得好,大反派还是他们。很奇怪吧?

[–]din35h 43

Agree. Delhi being land-locked is gonna get absolutely fucked if drastic measures aren't put in place.

Need to improve the standard of public transportation and convince people to use the public transportation.

同意。如果再不实施严厉措施,作为内陆城市的德里绝对只能完蛋。

公共交通系统的标准有待提高,还需要说服人们多使用公交系统。

[–]hydrosalad 57

Being an autocracy has its benefits. China mandated shut down of coal plants and steel plants near Beijing before the Olympic Games. In India, no government will risk the wrath of voters if they generated the same scale of job losses.

毒菜政体有它的优势。中国可以在奥运会前强制关闭北京周边的燃煤发电厂、钢铁厂。但在印度,考虑到这种级别的举措可能造成的失业,从而引来的选民的愤怒——没有哪届政府敢冒险这么做。

[–]AvalancheZ250 4

Humanity is like a frog in a kettle. Boil it suddenly, and it jumps out. Raise the temperature slowly, and the frog doesn’t realise the danger until it’s too late.

Democracy is fair, just and stable. Mostly. But it is often slow and indecisive. The question now is whether the Indian politicians can realise that short gain will only result in long term drain. Satisfy the voters now and 30 years down the line there might not be any voters left.

人性就像水壶里的青蛙。一阵猛烧,它会马上跳出来;缓慢加热,青蛙就察觉不到危险,直到为时已晚。

西式民主相对公平、公正而且稳定(多数情况下)。但它通常也很缓慢、缺乏决断力。现在的问题是印度政客们是否能意识到,眼前的好处长远看可能会是危险的陷阱。

为了让选民现在能满意,三十年后印度可能就没有选民了。

[–]Buck-Nasty 45

Same with starvation, India had about ten times as many people die from malnutrition since 1950 that China had but it's almost completely ignored.

饥荒问题也是一样。自1950年以来印度死于营养不良的人大概十倍于中国,但却被完完全全地忽略了。

[–]OnEarth2000 34

Simply because it fits Western Massive Media's political, economical and social narratives for China while it doesn't for India yet.

用特定方式叙述中国的经济、社会问题,对印度却不这样——其实就是因为这符合西方大众媒体的政治正确啊。

[–]SEND_ME_OLD_MEMES 40

It's amazing that India's air pollution problem is much much worse than China's, yet it receives very limited international attention compare to how they scrutinized China in the past decade.

Because like a lot of other things, democracies are given a pass.

“令人惊讶的是:印度的空气污染问题比中国严重那么、那么多,但比起对中国细致入微的审视,过去十年国际社会给予印度的关注却是如此有限。”

因为和在其它许多事情上一样,西式民主拥有豁免权。

[–]OnEarth2000 14

Saudi Arabia have been given a pass on many issues and I don't believe it is a democracy.

我不认为沙特阿拉伯(Saudi Arabia)算是西式民主国家,他们为什么也有豁免权?

[–]Dodara87 27

but they are US allies

但他们是美国的盟友啊

[–]toasted_breadcrumbs 14

They're the good theocratic terrorists.

他们属于善良的神权政治恐怖份子。

[–]andtherefore 1

US allies bitches

美利坚的同盟表。

[–]yuiandgakki 7

so I guess the correct answer is:

being an Allie of the west is the pass of everything

but TBH, Saudi still has a much worse reputation compare to India

那我猜正确答案应该是:

成为西方盟友,万事皆得豁免

但老实说(TBH = To Be Honest),沙特的名声比印度更糟

[–]zin36 74

china is not a democracy so the media likes bashing it quite a bit

中国不搞西式民主,于是媒体成天黑她

[–]TYxTxYT 128

Nah but rather India is not yet a threat to "the west".

Japan was a democracy in the 80s, but at the same time a threat, and there was all sorts of fearmongering.

不不不,只不过是印度对“西方世界”还构不成威胁而已。

80年代的日本是西式民主吧,但同时也是个威胁,媒体还不是(针对日本)制造各种恐惧。

[–]ShinCoal 20

Japan was a threat in the 80s?

80年代的日本是个威胁?

[–]Down_The_Rabbithole 69

Wow you're in for a treat!

Japanese Economy was dominating the globe so much in the 80's that the US and western powers had to force an accord to lower the value of the USD so that American products could compete with Japanese products.

There is a reason why 80's sci-fi always had a future depicted as Japanese dominated. Blade runner etc. In fact most of the cyberpunk aesthetics nowadays that was born in the 80s still contain Japanese text and architectural styles.

However the Japanese economy began to stagnate in the late 90's and their economy never recovered from this fall. The crisis endures even today while the rest of the world kept growing. Japan is still the third biggest economy in the world despite dropping for almost 30 years which is saying a lot of how big of a behemoth it once was.

China is now following the same trajectory as Japan in the 60's. Sure China is still not richer than the US like Japan was for a while and I doubt that will happen soon (or ever). But just the prospect of the US losing the '#1 spot like it did to Japan in the 80s is a very scary perspective for a lot of people.

(I also kinda disagree with the above comment claiming Japan to be a democracy considering only 1 political party held any true power in Japan since WW2, but that's a whole other story)

喔这个你肯定喜欢:

上世纪80年代的日本经济几乎主导了整个世界,美国和西方强权不得不勉强达成协议,操纵美元贬值才能使美国产品可以和日本产品竞争。

这就是为什么,80年代的科幻小说(sci-fi = science fiction)总爱描绘一个日本主导下的未来世界,比如《银翼杀手》(Blade runner)等等。事实上,今天看到的“赛博朋克美学”(cyberpunk,又称数字朋克、网络叛客)由于诞生于上世纪80年代,所以仍然饱含日本主题、建筑风格等。

然而日本经济在上世纪90年代后期出现停滞,自那以后再也没有恢复。这场危机至今仍在持续,而世界其他地区则在不断增长。即便衰退了30年,日本仍是世界第三大经济体,可想而知它曾经是怎样一个庞然大物。

中国今天走上了和上世纪60年代的日本一模一样的轨道。当然,中国还没能像日本那样(短暂地)比美国更富有,我也怀疑她短时间内(甚至永远)能否做到这一点。但仅仅是像80年代输给日本那样再次失去第一名头衔的前景,对很多人来说就够可怕了。

(另外,我不赞同上面把日本称为西式民主国家的评论——想想它自二战以来,事实上只有一个政党真正掌握实权——但那是另一回事了)

[–]CMinusMinusMaster 30

It was pretty bad for Asians in US during the 80s. Basically you got a lot of White people believed "Japs stealing our jobs", "Japs stealing our money", "Japs are trying to taking over the world!", etc.

One of the loudest such people was Donald Trump, the current US president. He's basically just repeating his ideas with Chinese instead of Japanese.

There were some stupid things such as White people marching on street smashing Japanese cars, beating/humiliating Asians. Some Asians got killed, mostly Chinese. One of the famous cases is the murder of Vincent Chin. The US government supported these behaviors as the murderers either went free or sentenced only a few years.

上世纪80年代生活在美国的亚洲人日子可不好过。基本上很大一部分白人相信“日本偷走了我们的工作”,“日本窃取我们的财富”,“日本想要控制世界!”,等等。

喊这种话喊得最响亮的人里面,就有唐纳德·特朗普,现任美国总统。他如今基本上就是对着中国重复当年用来说日本的话。

当年人们干了不少蠢事,诸如白人上街游行,捣毁日本汽车,殴打/羞辱亚洲人。还有亚洲人因此被杀,而多数却是中国人。其中最著名的案例就是陈果仁(Vincent Chin)被害案。

美国政府在背后支持这些行为,而杀人犯要么无罪释放,要么就只被象征性判了几年。

(译注:陈果仁,工业绘图师,美籍华人。1982年在底特律被克莱斯勒公司一名车间主管及其继子用棒球棍殴打致死。两凶手虽然被捕起诉,但被定轻罪,并且很快被释放。)

[–]ShinCoal 2

I was under the impression that Japan was tied pretty heavily to the USA, with them having a lot of bases in Japan . And even on a political/economic level I don't see how they could pose a threat like china could.

But honesty, I have no clue what its all about.

我印象里日本是和美国紧紧绑在一起的,日本有那么多美军基地。即使只是政治/经济层面,我也看不出他们能像中国那样构成威胁。不过说实话,我不大了解状况。

[–]arugulaboogie 7

You must have been born after the 70s then. But yes, Japan was definitely antagonised the way China is today. There was a saying, “ain’t no jap crap” to make fun of Japanese made products. Japanese tech was considered inferior and Japanese were only able to imitate, not create. Of course now we know that’s a load of bollocks. One of my favourite lines from back to the future is this:

Doc: "No wonder this circuit failed; it says 'Made in Japan'."

Marty: "What do you mean, Doc? All the best stuff is made in Japan."

那你一定是70年代以后出生的人。曾经的日本绝对就像今天的中国一样恼人。当时流行标榜“绝非日本垃圾”,来嘲笑日本制造的产品。人们认为日本技术是低端的,日本人只会模仿不会创造。当然现在我们都知道那是一派胡言。

有一句我最喜欢的《回到未来》(back to the future)里的台词:

博士说:“难怪电路会坏掉,上面写的'日本制造'。"

马丁说:”你什么意思啊,博士?所有最棒的东西都是日本制造的。“

[–]zin36 11

well yea its because its not a democracy and its also successful

对啊,就因为她(中国)不搞西式民主还能这么成功。

[–]ignenrintegra 20

It's not amazing at all. They have almost the same population, and India has a significantly smaller landmass.

I think that China gets international attention just because it's China. Reddit definitely has it's own narratives to maintain. The average redditor is an American who sees China as a threat but not India for some reason. India is treated as a joke and not worth talking about for many redditors. And then we have Japan, which reddit constantly likes to play up as "weird", even if the "weird" thing about Japan isn't weird at all.

一点也不让人惊讶。两国的人口几乎相当,但印度的陆地面积却要小很多。

我想中国能获得国际关注就只是因为她是中国。Reddit绝对有它自己的叙事方式。普通Reddit网友通常是一个把中国视为威胁的美国人,但却由于某种原因不会这样看待印度。

对许多Reddit网友来说,印度只是拿来开玩笑用的,否则就不值一提了。还有就是日本,Reddit上总是喜欢给它配以”怪异“一词,即使所谈论的关于日本的事情根本算不上”怪异“。

[–]sIlentr3b3l 5

In India, pollution isn't even seen as a major concern by politicians despite the fact that in the past few years, the situation has become even worse.

I don't believe people have much expectations from India to begin with.

在印度,污染甚至不被政客们视为当务之急,哪怕过去这几年情况越来越糟。

我想大家从一开始就没对印度抱有多大期待。

本文来源:https://www.reddit.com

免责声明:本文编译自互联网,不代表《歪果仁看中国》的观点和立场。

7条评论

  • shi强石

    我在上海也见到过,上海环境还算不错了,那些个不知道哪个国家的老外带着防毒口罩,简直白眼。

  • Guy超超

    我在广州出门偶尔也会带防毒口罩,取决于天气预报每天的污染指数

查看更多评论

评论

赞一个