爱问知识人 爱问共享资料 医院库
看中国

大千世界/无奇不有

看中国

正在阅读:10种比“毒品”更容易上瘾的食物

10种比“毒品”更容易上瘾的食物

10 Foods That Are More Addictive Or As Addictive As Drugs

爱问 2018-09-13 16:53:49 上瘾食物
15574 1

可能除了大麻之外,我们还被建议远离其它毒品,因为它们会产生消极后果。正如人们常说的那样,一旦开始,就很难停下来。我们许多人不知道的是,毒品并不是唯一的成瘾物,某些食物也会使人上瘾,有些食物甚至会对我们的身体产生和毒品一样的化学作用,其结果是,我们变得在身体上或精神上依赖于这些食物,并不断地咀嚼这些食物来治疗那些荒谬的瘾症。

10种比毒品更容易上瘾的食物

10 Cookies

Consuming a large number of cookies might seem like a habit. But as we are about to find out, it could be the result of an addiction. In one study, Jamie Honohan of Connecticut College injected rats with either a saline solution or one of cocaine or morphine. Thereafter, he put the animals in a maze containing rice cakes and Oreos, leaving the rats to move around freely. He realized that the animals moved to the area containing the Oreos, which they clearly preferred to the rice cakes. They became excited after eating the cream filling of the Oreos, just as they remained excited when injected with the drugs.Honohan later tested proteins from the rats and discovered that their accumbens—which is known as the “pleasure center” of the brain—was more excited when they ate Oreos than when they were injected with cocaine.

10、饼干

吃大量的饼干似乎是一种习惯,但正如我们即将发现的,这可能是上瘾的结果。在一项研究中,康涅狄格大学的杰米·霍诺汉给老鼠注射了生理盐水、可卡因、吗啡,之后,他把老鼠放进一个有米糕和奥利奥的迷宫里,让老鼠自由活动,他发现动物们都去到到了有奥利奥的地方,显然他们更喜欢奥利奥而不是米糕,他们在吃了奥利奥的奶油馅后变得兴奋起来,就像注射药物时他们仍然兴奋一样。霍诺汉后来测试了老鼠的蛋白质,发现它们的“伏膈核”——大脑的“快乐中心”,在吃奥利奥时比注射可卡因时更兴奋。

9 Wheat

Wheat is an addictive food that no one seems to notice. One of its properties is high gluten content, making “gluten free” the catchphrase for supposedly healthy wheat foods. However, consuming large quantities of wheat is unhealthy, whether it contains gluten or not. Today’s product is not the same as the wheat of the past. Instead, modern wheat is the result of genetic engineering that has been going on for about 50 years. It is called “Franken Wheat” for this reason. It contains lots of starch, gluten, and addictive proteins that keep you coming back for more.When consumed, these addictive proteins are broken down into polypeptides, which attach to brain receptors to make consumers high and addicted. Polypeptides also get into the bloodstream. At this point, they are called gluteomorphins, which is just a name derived from “gluten” and “morphine.” Wheat addicts will always crave more sweet wheat products like cookies and cakes. Interestingly, wheat addiction can be treated with drugs like naloxone, which doctors use to cure heroin or morphine overdose. Besides the addiction, wheat has been linked to cancer, obesity, heart disease, and several other medical disorders.

9、小麦

小麦是一种似乎没有人注意到的令人上瘾食物。它的特性之一是谷蛋白含量高,使“无谷蛋白”(“无麸质”)成为所谓健康小麦食品的的流行语,然而,大量食用小麦是不健康的,无论它是否含有谷蛋白,今天的小麦产品与过去的小麦不一样,相反,现代小麦是基因工程的结果,这一次基因工程已经进行了大约50年,因为这个原因,它被称为“弗兰肯小麦”,它含有大量的淀粉、面筋和成瘾性蛋白质,这些蛋白质在食用后会分解成多肽,这些多肽会附着在大脑的受体上,同时也进入了血液,使食用者上瘾,它们被称为“gluteomorphins ”(谷蛋白),而这个名称来源于“面筋”(gluten)和“吗啡”(morphine)的组合(直译是“吗啡麸质”或“吗啡面筋”)。小麦成瘾者将永远渴望更多的甜味小麦产品,如饼干和蛋糕,有意思的是,小麦成瘾可以用纳洛酮这样的药物来治疗——医生用纳洛酮来治疗海洛因或吗啡过量,除了成瘾,小麦还与癌症、肥胖、心脏病和其他几种疾病有关。

8 Meat

Meat is a natural and good source of animal protein. As a result, it is hard to distinguish between a person addicted to meat and someone who just needs its protein content. Meat contains hypoxanthine, a caffeine-like stimulant that makes us feel satisfied. Hypoxanthine even has the same properties as caffeine. Older meat contains more hypoxanthine, which is why some people exhibit withdrawal symptoms and a serious craving for this type of food if they do not eat it for a while.Meat contains other addictive substances like guanylic and inosinic acids, which have the same effect as hypoxanthine. Worse yet, once you are addicted to hypoxanthine, you will need to consume more meat to reach the same level of satisfaction.
  
8、肉类

肉类是一种天然的、良好的动物蛋白质来源。因此,很难区分对肉上瘾的人和仅仅需要其中所含蛋白质的人。肉中含有次黄嘌呤,一种类似咖啡因的兴奋剂,能让我们感到满足,次黄嘌呤甚至具有与咖啡因相同的特性。较老的肉类含有更多的次黄嘌呤,这就是为什么有些人表现出戒断症状,如果一段时间不吃它,他们会对这类食物产生强烈的渴望。肉类含有其他令人上瘾的物质,如鸟苷酸和肌苷酸,它们与次黄嘌呤有同样的效果。更糟糕的是,一旦你沉迷于次黄嘌呤,你将需要消费更多的肉类,以达到同样的满意度。

7 Ice Cream

Ice cream arouses the same part of our brain as drugs. Over time, we will need to eat more ice cream to maintain that arousal. When we don’t, we become depressed, just as drug addicts do when they do not get drugs.Kyle S. Burger and Eric Stice from the Oregon Research Institute studied the effect of ice cream addiction on the human brain. While scanning the brain activity of 151 teens, the researchers showed these young people a cartoon of a milkshake to measure their cravings before giving them actual milkshakes to consume during the scans.The researchers noticed that the teens who had consumed a lot of ice cream in the weeks leading to the study were not as excited by having a milkshake as those who hadn’t eaten much ice cream previously. This was measured by activity in the brain’s pleasure center while having a milkshake.As with using hard drugs, the teens who ate ice cream prior to the study needed more milkshakes to reach the same level of satisfaction as those who did not eat ice cream before the study.

10种比毒品更容易上瘾的食物

7、冰淇淋

冰淇淋和毒品一样,刺激我们大脑的同一部位。随着时间的推移,我们需要吃更多的冰淇淋来保持清醒,如果我们不这样做,我们就会变得抑郁,就像吸毒者得不到毒品时一样。来自俄勒冈研究所的凯尔·S·伯格和埃里克·斯提斯研究了冰淇淋成瘾对人脑的影响。在扫描151名青少年的大脑活动时,研究人员给这些年轻人看了一幅奶昔的图像,用来衡量他们的渴望,然后在扫描期间给他们喝真正的奶昔。研究人员注意到,在研究之前的几个星期吃了很多冰淇淋的青少年,并不像之前没有吃太多冰淇淋的人那样兴奋,和使用硬性药物一样,在研究之前吃冰激凌的青少年需要更多的奶昔才能达到与那些在研究前不吃冰激凌的人相同的满足感。

6 Cheese

Cheese is another addictive food we shove down our throats from time to time. It is found in many junk foods including pizza. It could even be the reason why some of us are addicted to pizza. This is because cheese contains the opiate molecules casein and casomorphins. Casomorphins are fragments of casein and have the same effect as morphine in the body. They attach themselves to the brain receptors that drugs like morphine and heroin do. In response, the brain releases dopamine in the same way as when someone takes drugs.Cheese makers know these facts and take advantage of them to sell more of their products. Although cheese will not turn you into a crackhead, it will make you high and addicted, although at a lower level than drugs.
  
6、奶酪

奶酪是另一种令人上瘾的食物,我们不时地把它塞进喉咙,它存在于许多垃圾食品中,包括比萨,这甚至可能是我们中的一些人对披萨上瘾的原因,这是因为奶酪含有阿片分子酪蛋白和酪啡肽。酪啡肽是酪蛋白的碎片,具有与吗啡相同的作用,他们依附在大脑的感受器上,而像吗啡和海洛因这样的药物也这样运作的,大脑释放多巴胺的方式与人们服用药物的方式相同。奶酪制造商知道这些事实,并利用这一特性来销售更多的产品,虽然奶酪不会让你变成瘾君子,但它会让你上瘾,尽管程度比毒品低。

5 Sugar

Like every other food, sugar can be healthy or unhealthy depending on how it is used. Unlike every other food, it can also become addictive. A study by researchers at Queensland University of Technology discovered that sugar has the same effect on the body as cocaine. Both make the body release dopamine.Over the long term, the amount of dopamine released becomes smaller compared to the amount of cocaine or sugar consumed, leading addicts to want more. When a sugar addict does not get enough sugar to trigger the release of dopamine, he could fall into depression in the same way that cocaine users feel when they cannot get the drug. When sugar addicts stop eating sugar, they may exhibit withdrawal symptoms just like cocaine users. Another study by Dr. James DiNicolantonio found that sugar is even more addictive than cocaine. In the study, rats addicted to cocaine switched to sugar after tasting it for the first time. The relationship between sugar and drugs becomes much closer when we realize that the Food and Drug Administration has approved varenicline, the same drug used to treat nicotine withdrawal, to treat sugar withdrawal.However, an earlier study by researchers from Edinburgh University concluded that sugar addiction is actually a behavioral problem and not an addiction. In essence, people consume sugar because they love it and not because they are addicted to it. In fact, their research claims that it is impossible to become addicted to sugar. 

5、糖

和其他食物一样,糖可以是健康的,也可以是不健康的,这取决于糖的使用方式。与其他食物不同的是,它也会使人上瘾。昆士兰科技大学研究人员的一项研究发现,糖对人体的影响与可卡因相同,两者都能使身体释放多巴胺,从长远来看,与可卡因相比,糖会导致多巴胺的释放量变小,导致成瘾者想要更多的多巴胺。当糖成瘾者不能获得足够的糖来触发多巴胺的释放时,他可能会陷入抑郁,就像可卡因使用者在无法得到毒品时所感受到的一样。当糖成瘾者停止吃糖时,他们可能表现出像可卡因使用者一样的戒断症状。

James DiNicolantonio博士的另一项研究发现,糖比可卡因更容易上瘾。在这项研究中,吸食可卡因成瘾的老鼠在第一次尝过糖后就开始吃糖了,当我们意识到食品和药物管理局已经批准使用瓦伦尼林治疗尼古丁戒断症时,糖和毒品之间的关系就变得更加密切了。然而,爱丁堡大学的研究人员早些时候的一项研究得出结论,糖类成瘾实际上是一个行为问题,而不是成瘾,从本质上说,人们食用糖是因为他们喜欢糖,而不是因为他们对糖上瘾,事实上,他们的研究声称人不可能对糖上瘾。

4 Coffee

The United States tops every other nation in caffeine consumption. The average American drinks three cups of coffee a day, and that is without counting their intake from other products like energy drinks and soda. Why do Americans drink so much coffee, you might ask? It could be the result of an addiction.This beverage contains caffeine, which has been crowned the “world’s most addictive and widely used drug.” It triggers the release of dopamine, making us feel good in the same way that drugs make users feel good. Caffeine also causes a serious addiction that can only be cured by drinking more coffee.

10种比毒品更容易上瘾的食物

4、咖啡

美国的咖啡因消费量远超其他国家,居世界之首,美国人平均每天喝三杯咖啡,这还不算能量饮料和苏打水等其他产品中的咖啡因摄入量。你可能会问,为什么美国人喝这么多咖啡?这可能是上瘾的结果。 这种饮料含有咖啡因,被冠以“世界上最容易上瘾和广泛使用的毒品”的称号,它触发多巴胺的释放,使我们感觉良好,就像毒品让使用者感觉良好一样,咖啡因也会导致严重上瘾,只能通过喝更多的咖啡才能治愈。

3 Soda

Some sodas like Pepsi and Coca-Cola are irresistible because they contain caffeine, which is super addictive. So even if you do not drink coffee, you can still get caffeine in cola. Research indicates that 80 percent of Americans consume caffeine in one way or another every day. Caffeine in cola enters the bloodstream and the brain where it disrupts the adenosine receptors responsible for slowing down the nerve cells in the brain. When this happens, our body goes into a state of alertness and releases adrenaline, which is usually released naturally when we are in danger. The body soon realizes that there is no danger and creates more adenosine receptors to block the effects of the cola. The drinker, who is already addicted at this point, is then forced to consume more soda to reach the same level of satisfaction as before. Besides caffeine, soda has been criticized for containing caramel coloring, phosphoric acid, and plenty of sugar or high-fructose corn syrup. A can of Coca-Cola has 10 teaspoons of sugar or high-fructose corn syrup, which causes diabetes in the long run. Caramel coloring has been linked to cancer, and phosphoric acid is just too acidic at a pH of 2.5. For comparison, car batteries have a more acidic pH of 1 and water has a neutral pH of 7. Phosphoric acid in soda does not damage our stomachs because the stomach digests this acid with the aid of calcium phosphate from our bones. This could cause bone problems like fracture and osteoporosis in the long run.

3、苏打

有些苏打水,如百事可乐和可口可乐是无法抗拒的,因为它们含有咖啡因,而且是超级上瘾。因此,即使你不喝咖啡,你仍然可以喝含有咖啡因的可乐。研究表明,80%的美国人每天以这样或那样的方式摄入咖啡因。可乐中的咖啡因进入血液和大脑,扰乱了负责减缓大脑神经细胞速度的腺苷受体。当这种情况发生时,我们的身体进入一种警觉的状态,释放肾上腺素,这通常是在我们处于危险时自然释放的,身体很快意识到没有危险,并创造了更多的腺苷受体来阻止可乐的作用,此时已经上瘾的饮用者被迫喝更多的苏打水,以达到和以前一样的满足感。

除了咖啡因,苏打水还被指含有焦糖色素、磷酸和大量的糖或高果糖玉米糖浆。 一罐可口可乐含有10茶匙糖或高果糖玉米糖浆,从长远来看,这会导致糖尿病,焦糖色素被认为与癌症有关,而磷酸在pH2.5的条件下是酸性的,比pH值为1的汽车电池的酸性更高,水的pH为7,中性。苏打水中的磷酸不会损害我们的胃,因为胃会借助骨骼中的磷酸钙来消化这种酸,从长远来看,这可能会导致骨折和骨质疏松等骨骼问题。

2 Potato Chips

Have you ever wondered why it is so hard to quit eating those bags of potato chips? According to a study, this is because they are as addictive as hard drugs. So once you pop the contents of a bag of chips, you might not stop. Like cheese, potato chips trigger the release of dopamine that messes with our bodies and gives us the same effect as drugs do for users. Research by Dr. Tony Goldstone of Imperial College London revealed that pictures of potato chips and junk foods in general excited the same part of the brain as images of alcohol do for boozers and pictures of drugs stimulate for drug users.

2、薯片

你有没有想过为什么不吃那些土豆片这么难?根据一项研究,这是因为它们像硬毒品一样容易上瘾。因此,一旦你打开一袋薯片,你就可能不会停止。就像奶酪一样,薯片会触发多巴胺的释放,多巴胺会扰乱我们的身体,给我们带来和毒品使用者一样的效果,伦敦帝国学院的托尼·戈德斯通博士的研究表明,薯片和垃圾食品通常会刺激大脑的同一部分,就像酒精对酒鬼和毒品对吸毒者的刺激作用一样。

1 Chocolate

Chocolate turns out to be another innocent food as addictive as drugs. This is because it contains sugar, fats, theobromine, and enkephalin, the caffeine of the cacao world. Theobromine and enkephalin are stimulants. Theobromine is known to trigger the expansion of our blood vessels and a drop in our heart rate and blood pressure to create a relaxing feeling, just like drugs.The effects of enkephalin need more study because most of the relevant research was done on rats. However, unlike rats, humans are not easily influenced by enkephalin. Researchers discovered that rats fed M&M’S candies experienced a spike in enkephalin secretion, which excited the opioid receptors of the brain just like heroin and morphine. At the same time, this made the rats crave more chocolate to keep the secretion going.

10种比毒品更容易上瘾的食物

1、巧克力

巧克力被证明是另一种像毒品一样容易上瘾的无害食物,这是因为它含有糖、脂肪、可可碱和脑啡肽,即咖啡因。可可碱和脑啡肽是兴奋剂,众所周知,可可碱会引起血管扩张,心率和血压下降,就像毒品一样,能产生放松的感觉。脑啡肽的影响需要更多的研究,因为大多数相关研究都是在老鼠身上进行的,然而,与老鼠不同的是,人不容易受到脑啡肽的影响,研究人员发现,喂食 M&M 糖果的老鼠脑啡肽分泌激增,脑啡肽刺激大脑的阿片受体,就像海洛因和吗啡一样,与此同时,这使得老鼠渴望更多的巧克力来维持分泌物。

本文来源:https://www.quora.com

免责声明:本文编译自互联网,不代表《歪果仁看中国》的观点和立场。

评论

赞一个