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正在阅读:印度和中国的教育体系有何不同?

印度和中国的教育体系有何不同?

What is the difference between the education system of India and China?

爱问 2018-09-14 11:13:09 印度中国教育
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印度文化由三样东西统治:和平、爱和宗教。作为一个国家,印度5000年来从未入侵过外国领土。你应该关爱别人,永远不要咄咄逼人,这是印度文化根深蒂固的一部分。当我到达印度的时候,这是第一件让我震惊的事情,让我感到非常平静。

QUORA网站读者评论:

Shubham Goel, studied at School / Facebook

Indian Education

Indian culture is ruled by three things : peace, love and religion. As a country, India has never invaded a foreign land for 5000 years. It is deeply part of Indian culture that you should mind the others, and never be aggressive. It is actually the first thing that shoked me when I arrived there, how peaceful it made me feel.

Education is the same, families are very close, and parents are being extremely tolerant with their kids. They will still give the guidelines to a good education, they know what is good and what is bad and they teach it to their kids, but I have always seen parents finally backing down to the will of their kids. If the kid wants a new toy, they’ll buy it ; if the kid does not want to finish it’s food, well, that’s ok. If he likes to do this, does not like to do this, his desires will always be fulfilled. In western culture, this would create bad kids and eventually criminals, but in an Indian society so deeply filled with love and family values, it just works fine.

印度的教育

印度文化由三样东西统治:和平、爱和宗教。作为一个国家,印度5000年来从未入侵过外国领土。你应该关爱别人,永远不要咄咄逼人,这是印度文化根深蒂固的一部分。当我到达印度的时候,这是第一件让我震惊的事情,让我感到非常平静。

教育也是一样的,家庭成员之间很亲密,父母对孩子非常宽容。他们知道什么是好的,什么是坏的,他们会把这些教给孩子,但我总是看到父母最终会对孩子的意愿让步。如果孩子想要一个新玩具,他们会买;如果孩子不想吃完食物,没关系。如果他喜欢这样做,不喜欢这样做,他的愿望总是会得到满足。在西方文化中,这可能会造就坏孩子,最终成为罪犯,但在一个充满爱和家庭价值观的印度社会中,这种做法很管用。

Chinese Education

The common point is that Chinese culture also has strong family values, the kids are under their parents rule pretty much from the time they were born to the moment their parent pass away. But the major difference is that Chinese parents are much more strict. Parents make the rules and kids obey. And it is the same in School, teachers have a much stronger authority that they would have in the West, it would be very unusual to contradict a teacher, and learning is mostly made out of repeating.

So what are the consequences, well, I think you saw it coming, Indians are more creative, and generally more open minded than Chinese. I have seen many lower / middle class Indian with amazing knowledge about my own country’s politics for example, whereas I have hardly ever seen that among Chinese. But Chinese are much more focused, they follow the rules, and I feel they have a stronger ability to focus on one particular task and master it perfectly.

中国的教育

相似之处在于,中国文化也有很强的家庭价值观,孩子从出生到父母去世几乎都是在父母的管制之下。但主要的区别是中国父母要严格得多。父母制定规则,孩子们遵守。在学校也是一样的,老师拥有比西方老师更强大的权威,反驳老师的行为是离经叛道的,而学习几乎就是不断的重复。

那么后果是什么呢,我想你已经预见到了,印度人比中国人更有创造力,更开明。例如,我见过许多印度中下阶层的人,他们对自己国家的政治有着惊人的了解,而我却很少在中国人当中看到这种情况。但中国人更专注,他们遵守规则,我觉得他们有更强的能力专注于一个特定的任务,并完美地掌握它。

Anshu, works at Studying

Chinese education system consists of six years of primary school, three of lower secondary and three of upper secondary. The state mandates every child to attend nine years of school – six years of primary and three of lower secondary. At age 15, they are “empowered” to choose their upper secondary program in either academic or vocational fields.Shanghai model adopts the mission of equipping children with the core skills of learning and curiosity and the ability to disseminate information.

In india there is lack in assessing existing data on learning outcomes.focused and step-by-step system of school education reform, it is indeed possible to aim at a bank of holistic schools in our indian cities. There is a lot need to get improved. Beggning from the syllabus & their area of interest.many students here are compelled to study the stream entirely opposite of their intrest.syllabus needs to be upgraded as indian syllabus is outdated one.

中国的教育体系包括6年的小学教育、3年的初中教育和3年的高中教育。中国规定每个孩子学满九年义务教育——小学6年,初中3年。在15岁的时候,他们可以选择继续升学高中深造或进入职业领域的高级中学课程。上海模式的使命是让孩子具备学习、好奇心和传播信息的能力。

在印度,对学习成果的现有数据缺乏评估。学校教育系统集中和逐步进行改革,确实有可能在我们的印度城市建立一些全面的学校。我们有很多地方需要改进。从教学大纲和他们感兴趣的领域出发。这里的许多学生被迫学习与他们兴趣完全相反的课程。教学大纲需要升级,因为印度的教学大纲已经过时了。

Vinayak Manoji, Civil Service Aspirant/GATE/IES friend, Motivator, IITDian,

At the time of independence in 1947 and liberation in 1949, India and China, respectively, faced the educational problem massive illiteracy. China and India are the two largest higher education systems in the world with a total enrollment of 2.91 crore and 2.67 crore students, respectively. In 1980, the economies of China and India were almost the same in terms of gross domestic product (GDP). India’s GDP per capita was, in fact, slightly higher than that of its much larger eastern neighbour. Then, the Chinese economy grew at an average rate of 10 per cent between 1980 and 2010, leaving India far behind. In fact, Chinese manufacturing sector is presently eight times the size of India’s. In 1982, the literacy rate in China was 64.4 per cent, compared to India’s 37. The average years of schooling in China was far higher than that in India then. In every measure, China was far better than India.

Indian higher education system is highly concentrated at the undergraduate (bachelor’s) degree level. In fact, with 1.98 crore students, it is the largest system in the world in terms of undergraduate enrollment as compared to 1.27 crore in China and 1.04 crore in the U.S. As a proportion of the total student enrollment in higher education, India has nearly 75% of all its students pursuing a bachelor’s degree as compared to 43% for China and half for the U.S.

在1947年独立和1949年解放的时候,印度和中国都面临着教育问题,都有大量的文盲。中国和印度是世界上最大的两个高等教育体系,两国的在校生人数分别为2.91亿和2.67亿。1980年,中国和印度的经济在国内生产总值(GDP)方面几乎相同。事实上,印度的人均GDP略高于其大得多的东部邻国。当时,中国经济在1980年至2010年期间平均增长10%,远远落后于印度。事实上,中国制造业目前的规模是印度的8倍。1982年,中国的识字率为64.4%,而印度为37%。那时,中国的平均教育年限远高于印度。无论从哪个方面看,中国都远远好于印度。

印度的高等教育体系高度集中于本科(学士)学位。事实上,1980万的学生是世界上最大的本科生群体,相比之下中国只有1270万,美国仅有1040万。印度有将近75%的学生获得学士学位,中国有43%,美国有50%。

This concentration at the undergraduate level is quite unique to India not only due to three-year degree in Arts, Science and Commerce, which form more than 85% of all undergraduate enrollments. However, availability of too many bachelor’s degree holders for a smaller economy as compared to China or the U.S., has created a situation of credential inflation, which simply means, devaluation of a degree with time due to oversupply of graduates. This is evident from many unemployed and underemployed college graduates. It also reflects poor quality of education and skills imparted at many institutions. Despite smaller population and size of higher education system as compared to China, India has more than double the number of students at postgraduate level (27 lakhs vs. 12 lakhs).

At the vocational education level, India with young and ambitious population is missing the opportunity of engaging them as a part of the mainstream economic growth through manufacturing. This is where China leaped forward and engaged the masses through low-cost, volume-based manufacturing. However, China did not achieve this by chance; instead it expanded vocational education system to develop a skilled manpower base for manufacturing related activities. China enrolls nearly 96 Lakhs students in vocational education as compared to 40 Lakhs in India.

这种本科层次的集中在印度是非常独特的,不仅因为三年的艺术、科学和商业学位构成了85%以上的本科入学人数。然而,与中国或美国相比,印度经济规模较小,却有太多的学士学位持有者,造成了文凭通货膨胀的局面,简单地说,就是由于毕业生供过于求,学位随时间贬值。从许多失业和未充分就业的大学毕业生身上就可以明显看出这一点。它也反映了许多机构教育质量和传授的技能差。尽管与中国相比,印度高等教育系统的人口和规模更小,但印度的研究生人数是中国的两倍多(270万比120万)。

在职业教育层面,印度年轻且有抱负的人口正错失通过制造业让他们成为主流经济增长的一部分的机会。在这里,中国跃跃欲试,通过低成本、以产量为基础的制造业吸引了大众。然而,中国并不是偶然实现这一目标的;相反,它扩大了职业教育体系,为制造业相关活动建立了熟练的人力基础。中国有近960万名学生接受职业教育,而印度只有400万。

Abhishek Khanna, Architect

China raised the bar for entry to the teaching profession in the 1990s. All primary school teachers needed a diploma and all teachers in secondary schools had to be degree-holders with professional certification. China was the first forward-thinking district to mandate continuous professional training for its teachers. Every teacher is expected to complete 240 hours of professional development in five years.

上世纪90年代,中国提高了教师行业的准入门槛。所有小学教师都需要文凭,所有中学教师都必须持有专业证书。中国是第一个要求对教师进行持续专业培训的有远见的国家。每位教师都需在五年内完成240小时的专业培训。

As evidenced in China, through a well-thought out, focused and step-by-step system of school education reform, it is indeed possible to aim at a bank of holistic schools in our cities. But for that our schools and the systems which govern them may have to go through a crucible of experimentation and be brave about embracing innovation and partnership.

正如中国所证明的那样,通过深思熟虑的、集中的、按部就班的学校教育改革体系,确实有可能在我们的城市建立一批综合性学校。但要做到这一点,我们的学校和管理系统可能必须经历考验,勇敢地拥抱创新和伙伴关系。

Harsh Vardhan, studied at Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Education system of India and China are different from various aspects:

1.) Chinese people study in their own language (School, College and University level) whereas; Indians are more inclined towards English language.

2.) Infrastructure of various colleges and universities in China are far better than Indian universities, even IITs for that matter.

3.) Chinese government give profound number of scholarship to their students however, Indian government give few scholarships.

4.) Chinese students are more towards practical education, we Indians stick to last year question papers during exam time.

5.) Chinese government didn’t support reservations however, Indian government pay much attention on how to increase caste based reservation to tarnish their image, which in turn decreases the quality of institutions.

6.) Having said that, the interesting part is both Chinese and Indian students wants to go to any English speaking country, preferably USA to fulfill their dreams.

7.) Lastly, China has a bit robust education system than India.

To be very honest, on a scale of 10, India: 7 / 10; China: 9 / 10.

印度和中国的教育体系在很多方面是不同的:

1)。中国人学习他们自己的语言(中学,学院和大学水平),而印度人更喜欢英语。

2)。中国各大高校的基础设施远远好于印度大学,甚至印度理工学院。

3)。中国给学生提供了大量的奖学金,而印度政府给的奖学金却很少。

4)。中国学生更倾向于实践教育,我们印度人则看重去年的考卷试题。

5)。中国并不支持预留制,印度政府非常关注如何增加基于种姓的预留席位,这反过来又降低了学校的质量。

6)。话虽如此,有趣的是中国和印度学生都想去说英语的国家,最好是美国来实现他们的梦想。

7)。最后,中国的教育体系比印度强。

坦率地说,以10分制打分,印度可获7分,中国可获9分。

Shashank Rayal, Movie Buff & Author | Entrepreneur | Civil Engineer

I could comment about Education System of China if I done schooling from there. Systems made according to the norms we can’t judge it right or wrong without experiencing it personally.

Talking about Education System of India, so I have not found any fault in that except category wise Quota.

I’m not saying it wrong but it should be in terms of physical disabilities, financial conditions etc. but not in class and categories. Because all takes birth with the same 400 grams brain doesn’t matters if the child is from general category or SC.

如果我在中国上学,我可以评论中国的教育系统。我们不能在没有亲身体验的情况下判断一个系统是对是错。

说到印度的教育体系,我没有发现任何错误,除了种姓配额之外。

我并不是说这错了,但应该基于身体残疾,经济状况等等,而不是阶级和种姓类别。因为所有的孩子出生时大脑都是400克的,不管这个孩子是普通种姓还是表内种姓。

Rajveer Singh, studied at Student

For higher studies in india there are limited no of govt. institutions.It is very competetive to get an admission there.after getting admission there are little students who really learn something and give something reproductive.But in china pass in exam and get admission and u have to give some useful project or researce to get promoted.sothe quality of their students are better.our students are just with a degree,not any innovative idea.

在印度,高等教育的政府学校数量有限。要得到政府学校的录取通知书是竞争很激烈的。在被录取后,只有一小部分学生能真正学到一些东西。但在中国,通过考试,获得录取后,你必须做一些有用的项目或研究,才能晋级。所以他们的学生质量更好。我们的学生只有学位,没有任何创新的想法。

Ruddy Raar, Article at At CA Firm (2012-present)

Difference is lot. They spend less on education and much on defence whereas India spend little part of funds in education.

They have better infrastructre and better use of technology.

Whereas we face lack of infrastructer and no use of technology.

In many ways we are lacking behind.. We are overcoming from it.

差别很大。他们在教育上花的少,在国防上花的多,而印度在教育上花的钱很少。

他们有更好的基础设施和更好的技术应用。

然而,我们面临缺乏基础设施和技术的应用。

在许多方面我们落后了。我们正在克服。

Ranjit Bhanarkar, works at Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology,Nagpur

There is difference between education system beetn india and China.. in china they have education in there own language.but not in india.so indian people  have to learn a english language.

印度和中国的教育制度是有区别的。在中国,他们用当地的语言进行教育。但在印度却不是这样。所以印度人必须学习一门英语。

Stark Shaw, works at National University of Ireland, Maynooth

In different duration (primary school, secondary school, high school, etc) it has different phenomenon, but still under one institution.

在不同的学制(小学、中学、高中等)中存在着差异,但仍处于同一制度下。

English education and 3rd language education starts from 1st year of primary school. (This is what I heard for 2 years ago, it might be changed regarding to the English is not necessary on the university entrance exam)

Tough mathematics education, and extremely tough in the high school. Regardless other subjects, especially arts subjects’ importances.

Aiming to build each person exactly same like an assembly line, ignored personalities and special characteristics. Brainwash politics education (a.k.a. moral education) to let students join Young Pioneers (primary school stage), Communist Youth League (late secondary school, and high school) and Communist Party (university or other higher education).

Army-like arrangement in a great number of fundamental schools and most higher education institutes. Students have to run and sign up on the morning, etc.

Less concentration on scholarly research at the start stage of most university. In the 1st year most subjects are regarding to Marx theory and communism. No researching atmosphere and attitude for most students in most universities.

从小学1年起就开始学习英语教育和第三语言教育。(这是我两年前听到的,因为高考不一定要考英语了,所以可能会改变)

深奥的数学教育,和极其艰难的高中。不管其他学科,特别是艺术学科的重要性。

旨在让每个人变成流水线上完全相同的东西,忽视个性和特色。让学生参加少先队(小学阶段)、共青团(中后期、高中阶段)和(大学或其他高等教育)。

在很多基础学校和大多数高等教育学府执行军事化管理。学生必须在早上跑步签到等等。

大多数大学一开始并不注重学术研究。第一年的大部分课程是关于马克思的理论和。对于大多数大学的大多数学生来说,缺乏研究的氛围和态度。

Chinese education, I think, is distinct to most countries. To me, Ireland primary schools (scoil) are focused on interpersonal communication rather than loads of mathematical knowledge. More about human, and play. In 6-year secondary school (coláiste, college) the student will receive some science and mathematical  knowledges, but still not too difficult. In university stage (ollscoil) they will receive the in-field knowledge of their interesting point. At this stage they will study some real difficult knowledge. And normally there are some entrepreneurship helping centers in university to assistant student who attempt to build a small business, which is really practical and useful to some majors.

我认为,中国的教育与大多数国家不同。在我看来,爱尔兰小学注重人际交往,而不是大量的数学知识。在6年的中学,学生将获得一些科学和数学知识,但难度仍然不是太高。在大学阶段,他们将获得他们感兴趣的领域内知识。在这个阶段,他们将学习一些真正艰深的知识。通常在大学里会有一些创业帮助中心帮助那些想要建立小型企业的学生,这对一些专业来说是非常实用和有用的。

Mark Fudemberg, Ms Education, Avila University (2001)

I am not sure if the question refers to public schools, international of which there are several types, language schools, or test prep. I, for instance, teach in an international school with mostly Chinese students, although several attended some primary in the US and Austalia. All plan on uni in America, and this year’s seniors have all been accepted to American unis. I have taught part time at a language school and that is a far different experience . A friend and former colleague teaches in the international program at Beijing # 80 one of the best public schools in Beijing, but his students will stay in China.

So, if you have a specific type of Chinese school in mind, reask your question. In a country as populas and diverse as China broad generalization often obscure more than illuminate.

我不确定这个问题是否指的是公立学校,国际学校有几种类型,语言学校,或预备学校。例如,我在一所国际学校教书,大部分是中国学生,尽管有些人在美国和澳大利亚上过小学。所有孩子都计划在美国上大学,今年的高年级学生都被美国大学录取。我曾在一所语言学校兼职教学,这是一种截然不同的经历。我的一位朋友和前同事在北京80中,最好的公立学校之一的国际部任教,但他的学生将留在中国。

所以,如果你心中有一种特定类型的中国学校,你可以重新提问。在一个像中国这样人口众多、充满多样性的国家里,要一语概之往往是模糊不清的。

Robert Free, lived in China

I have hired and interviewed many Chinese. I would say that the results at high school level are very good. The results of a university degree are not very good. Even graduates of famous Chinese universities were poor performers at their chosen field.

One of my best staff is from shenyang. She had Chinese schooling and and Australian university degree. That’s a powerful combination since before university, math and science skills of Chinese seem better than Australia, in my subjective experience.

我雇用和面试过许多中国人。我想说高中的成绩非常好。大学学位的成绩不是很好。即使是中国名牌大学的毕业生,在他们选择的领域也表现不佳。

我最好的员工之一来自沈阳。她接受过中国教育,并获得澳大利亚大学学位。这是个强大的组合,因为以我的主观经验看,在大学之前,中国人的数学和科学技能似乎比澳大利亚人好。

Naveen K Sharma, Works at Henkel (2017-present)

Thanks Kelly for A2A.

Indian education system is very competitive because there are only a few highly reputed institutes in India.

There 1000’s of thousands of student vying for some selected 30–50 k seats in top medical and engineering institutions in addition to basic science, law and arts institutions.

But as you can see from the sheer number that not everybody will make the cut into the prestigious institutions, other Indian institutes are juggling with one or more of the below difficulties:

谢谢Kelly。

印度的教育系统竞争很激烈,因为印度只有少数几所著名的学院。

除了基础科学、法律和艺术院校外,成千上万的学生竞争顶尖医疗和工程院校的30-50个名额。

但正如你从绝对数量上看到的,并不是每个人都能进入著名的机构,其他印度机构正在应付以下一种或多种困难:

Number of good quality schools and colleges are limited

Student-teacher ratio is poor

Lack of amenities

Lack of funds for research

Outdated course structure

Lack of internship/practical opportunities

Job of a teacher or professor is not demanding

No international exposure

Coaching/tuition centers which only wealthy can afford

Students focus on money than anything else after education

Pressure on student to perform best to get into top medical and engineering institutes

优质学校和大学的数量很有限

师生比率少得可怜

缺乏设施

缺乏资金进行研究

过时的课程结构

缺乏实习/实践机会

老师或教授的工作要求不高

没有国际接触

辅导/补习中心只有富人能负担得起

学生毕业后把钱看得重过其他一切

给学生极大压力,表现最好的人才能进入顶尖医学和工程学院

It is believed that as Indian government does not spend a significant share of its GDP on education like other developed countries, therefore we have most of the problems. Moreover, there is no concrete plan to modernize the course structure.

As we have only a few national technical and medical institutes which impart world class education to its students, there is cut-throat cutting competition which promotes to rat race.

Still, there are some excellent points about Indian education system:

人们认为,由于印度政府不像其他发达国家那样将其GDP的很大一部分花在教育上,因此我们面临着大多数问题。此外,目前还没有实现课程结构现代化的具体计划。

由于我们只有少数几所国家技术和医学院校向学生传授世界一流的教育,所以存在着激烈的竞争。

尽管如此,印度的教育系统还是有一些很好的地方:

Education is affordable

Competition makes student strong enough to be always thirsty for knowledge

Institutes such as IITs/IIMs/IISc and many private institutes are world class in imparting education (but the number of intakes is less as I mentioned)

Indian Governments initiatives such as National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning (NPTEL ) and other online courses for free from IITs and other top institutes

Skill India initiatives

Establishment of center of excellence (COE) in engineering institutes to provide practical exposure

教育支出是负担得起的

竞争使得学生总是渴望知识

理工学院等机构所分校/印度和许多私人学校是世界一流水平(但录取的学生数量少就像我之前提到的)

印度政府计划,如国家技术强化学习项目和其他在线课程由理工学院和其他高级研究院免费提供

技能印度项目

在工程学院建立卓越中心,提供实践机会

This explanation is based on my experience as an engineering student. Opinions may differ on few points.

这个解释是基于我作为一名工科学生的经验。在一些问题上意见可能会有分歧。

Aditya Yadav

Education system of India is amazing. It believes to rectify, nourish and attack direct to the root. And that’s why we have produced a lot of scientists, doctors and engineers. Our education system is very strict and profound in its ways of teaching young children to become proper adults. Yet there is always something to improve everywhere as well as in our educational system like

Too much Nationalism is Taught

Promotion of Rat Race

Students are encouraged to become workers

Analysis part is not emphasized

Teachers are not efficient

Market/Society/Ground related information is not given

Creativity and Innovation is missing

印度的教育系统是非常棒的。它矫正、滋养和直击问题的根源。这就是为什么我们培养了很多科学家、医生和工程师。我们的教育制度是非常严格和深奥的,它教幼儿成为适当的成年人。然而,我们的教育体系中也会有一些东西需要改进

灌输了太多的民族主义教育

促进竞争激烈

鼓励学生成为工人

不强调分析能力

老师并不高效

市场/社会/实践信息缺乏

缺失创造力和创新

本文来源:https://www.quora.com

免责声明:本文编译自互联网,不代表《歪果仁看中国》的观点和立场。

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