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为什么中国这么擅长制造无人机?

Why is China so good at making drones?

龙腾网/爱问 2018-10-22 16:51:41 中国制造无人机
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六七十年代的时候消费商品的制造开始转移到亚洲。出口导向性工厂在日本大量出现,后来遍及台湾,韩国和香港。到了八九十年代,中国大陆开始开放,很逗企业主嗅到了机会,将工厂搬到了中国。很多选择搬到深圳,就在香港旁边.....

为什么中国这么擅长制造无人机?

正文翻译

Why is China so good at making drones?

为什么中国这么擅长制造无人机?

Glenn Luk, Invests in technology and growth

Updated Fri

In the 60s and 70s, the manufacture of consumer goods began to move out to Asia. Export-oriented factories sprouted in Japan and later in places like Taiwan, South Korea and Hong Kong.

In the 80s and 90s after mainland China had begun to open up, many of these business owners smelled opportunity and moved their factories across the border. Many chose to re-locate to Shenzhen, across the border from Hong Kong. Over the next two decades, they leveraged the inexpensive, seemingly limitless pool of labor to scale up massively.

六七十年代的时候消费商品的制造开始转移到亚洲。出口导向性工厂在日本大量出现,后来遍及台湾,韩国和香港。到了八九十年代,中国大陆开始开放,很逗企业主嗅到了机会,将工厂搬到了中国。很多选择搬到深圳,就在香港旁边。在接下来的二十年时间,他们利用了廉价的无限的劳动力大进行大规模生产。

These factories started with simpler, easier-to-manufacture consumer products … clothing, plastic toys, watches, small kitchen appliances etc. … before figuring out how to make more complicated stuff … telephones, cellphones, and backup battery systems …

这些工厂刚开始制造简单容易生产的消费产品,服装,塑料玩具,手表,小型厨房用具等等,然后才开始制造更加复杂的产品,比如电话,手机和后备电池系统。

At each stage, small clusters of specialized expertise and component supply chains sprung up around each new product. Often there was overlap in skills and components between different product categories. With each product generation, they gained more skills and as they gained more skills, they moved up up the value chain:

每一阶段,围绕每一种新产品都会涌现出小型的专业知识集群和零部件供应链。不同产品类别之间的技能和组件经常存在重叠。随着每一代产品的出现,他们获得了更多的技能,随着技能的提高,他们提升了价值链。

The plastic injection molding machine that could turn out plastic toys could also be used to make housing for small kitchen appliances.

塑料注射模型成型机用来制造塑料玩具的同时还可以用来制造小型厨房用具的外壳。

Similar electric motor technology as the one used in the kitchen appliance could be used to spin a disc in a DVD player.

类似的用于厨房用具的电动机技术也可以用来旋转DVD播放器的唱片。

The same audio input/output components in the DVD player could be miniaturized into a cellphone.

DVD播放器里的音频输入和输出部件可以用于手机中。

The RF expertise you learned making cellphones could be leveraged into manufacturing smartphones.

手机制造中所习得的无线电频率知识可以用于制造智能手机。

In the beginning, these factories started out making clothing and simple plastic toys. After toiling away for years and years, one day they looked up and realized they were now manufacturing the most sophisticated consumer electronics products the planet had ever seen.

最初,这些工厂只是生产服装和简单的塑料玩具。在经历过多年的努力后,有一天他们发现自己已经在制造世界上最复杂的消费电子产品了。

In Shenzhen, there is a district where you can catch a firsthand glimpse at how all of these specialty components and trade skills are clustered tightly together in one location.

在深圳有一个地区,你可以直接看到所有这些专业部件和贸易技能是如何紧密地聚集在一起的。

It is called Huaqiangbei (华强北) and it is the largest electronics bazaar in the world.

它叫做华强北,它是世界上最大的电子产品市场。

This district has dozens of buildings like this one below — filled with all sorts and varieties of electronic components and gear.

这个地区有几十栋这样的建筑物,下面是各种各样的电子元件和设备。

In each building, there are hundreds of shops and stalls that do both retail and wholesale business. Typically, each shop specializes in just one or a few product categories. For example, I remember there was a shop that just sold USB-powered fans and lights.

每幢楼里,都有成百上千的商铺和摊位可以做零售和批发生意。通常情况下,每个商店只提供一种或几种产品类别。举个例子,我记得有一家商店卖的是usb电扇和电灯。

These shops are supplied by factories that are also similarly specialized.

这些商店由同样专业的工厂供应。

You can basically find anything you need to build consumer electronics in Shenzhen and it is all located within a small radius.

你基本上可以在深圳找到任何你需要的消费电子产品,而且它都位于一个小半径的范围内。

Tear apart your phone and you will find a bunch of components, including:

为什么中国这么擅长制造无人机?

拆开你的手机,你会发现一堆组件,包括:

Custom plastic/metal housing

Display unit

Camera unit

Lithium-ion battery

Sensors

CPU, RF/baseband, memory and other specialized chips and electronics on a printed circuit board (PCB)

定制塑料/金属外壳

显示装置

照相机单元

锂离子电池

传感器

印刷电路板(PCB)上的CPU、射频/基带、内存和其他专用芯片和电子产品

Source: iPhone 7 Plus Teardown

Now do the same for a kitchen appliance (e.g. a Vitamix) and you will find:

资料来源:拆卸iPhone 7 Plus

现在做同样的厨房电器(如Vitamix),你会发现:

Custom plastic/metal housing

Electric motors and switches

Wires

Some basic control logic and electronics on a PCB

Now smash these two together and voila! … you have most of the key components needed to build a drone.

PCB的一些基本控制逻辑和电子设备

现在,把这两件一起给我打碎!你拥有制造无人机所需的大部分关键部件。

Engineers working in Shenzhen factories have been smashing things apart and putting them back together for the better part of the past three decades. They can iterate quickly because all of the components and trade skills are concentrated in such a tightly packed space.

在深圳工厂工作的工程师们在过去30年时间里不断的拆卸和组装。之所以可以快速迭代,因为所有的部件和交易技巧都集中在如此紧凑的空间中。

They got better by doing … over and over and over again.

为什么中国这么擅长制造无人机?

他们不断尝试,直到越变越好。

There is something called shanzhai (山寨) culture in China. It took on the meaning of “counterfeiting” because in the beginning that is what people were doing. But over time it has taken on a new meaning, one that revolves around the idea of constant tinkering, iterating and experimentation that goes on around the clock in Shenzhen:

有所谓的山寨(山寨)在中国文化。它的意思是“伪造”,因为一开始人们就是这么做的。但随着时间的推移,它已经有了新的含义,它围绕着在深圳昼夜不停地修补、迭代和实验的想法。

The term shanzhai originally referred to cheap copycats of brand products and electronic devices, particularly mobile phones that took the name of ai-phone, Nakia and Samsong, but is now increasingly applied to the entire Open Manufacture system developed in Shenzhen in the last thirty years as an ad-hoc model based on easy and open access to electronic components, ready to produce key solutions ‘open boards’ and a network of relationships and providers …

… the mainstream of shanzhai products are niche products or items offering very specific bespoke features, such as large fonts for old people, cute shapes and designs for kids, multiple SIM cards, solar chargers and other more culturally specific solutions, such as a compass to locate Mecca for daily prayer. Unusual and crazy options can be readily available.

Now many view shanzhai culture in a positive light and as something more philosophical and inspirational. It has converged with the Makers movement, a global community of engineers and hobbyists that look for new and novel ways to use electronics.

山寨最初指的是对名牌产品和电子设备的廉价抄袭,尤其是移动电话,比如苹果手机,诺基亚和三星,但现在更多指的是整个开放的制造系统,过去三十年来,由于能够轻易的获得电子部件,能获得关键的解决方案,加上关系和供应商网络,使得深圳发展出了这套系统。

Over the years, Shenzhen has developed critical mass in all of the necessary trades and skills for consumer electronics. Supported by foreign trade as well as an increasingly relevant Chinese middle class, it developed a sophisticated supply chain where all of the major components are concentrated in industrial clusters.

多年来,深圳在消费电子所需的所有行业和技能方面都取得了长足发展。随着中国对外贸易的支持以及中国中中产阶层的日益增长,它开发了一条完善的供应链体系,其中所有的主要环节都集中在产业集群中。

Add in a dose of shanzhai-inspired Maker culture … with all of the constant experimentation and tinkering …

再加上一剂“山寨”的创客文化……不断的实验和修补……

Tinkering to lower cost

Tinkering to create unique customizations (drones in all different shapes and sizes)

Tinkering to fuse different product ideas together (“hey what if we added a camera to this drone?”)

如何来降低成本

如何创建独特的定制(不同形状和大小的无人机)

如何融合不同的产品理念(“嘿,如果我们给这架无人机增加一个摄像头怎么样?”)

… and you end up with the explosion in creativity and variety that we are seeing today in the consumer electronics sector in China. Drones are only one out of many different examples.

我们今天在中国的消费电子行业看到了创意和多样性的爆炸式增长。无人机只是众多不同例子中的一个。

And there will almost certainly be more to come: Smash enough new ideas against the smartphone supply chain and you are bound to eventually stumble across the next great consumer electronics product.

当然还会有更多这样的例子出现:用新的想法去碰撞智能手机供应链,最终将产生新的伟大的消费电子产品。

本文来源:https://www.quora.com

免责声明:本文编译自互联网,不代表《歪果仁看中国》的观点和立场。

10条评论

  • 差不多得夜生活

    山寨说好听一点就是创新,像日本人一样干,在别人的基础上完美,包括日本汽车产业,以前的家电等等,无不是别发创造出来,它翻新,可现在谁说日本货是山寨?当你山寨出来的东西比原创更好,就足以让别人闭嘴,其实现在中国已经到了山寨的顶点,慢慢的今后就会有一些创造性,首发技术,例如过去造纸 印刷这种受益上千年的原创性技术

  • 回忆芣姟回忆

    模仿吸收创新,这是每个工业化国家都会走的路子...什么山寨不山寨,深究起来,这世界有不靠山寨起家的国家吗?...另外只有模仿了,吸收了了解通透了才会在原基础上创新....所以创新从来不会建立在地基不牢的基础上的,你小学还没读完就想博士毕业没有这种道理的

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